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  • 1.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Fung, Chau Man
    The University of Glasgow.
    Proost, Stef
    KU Leuven.
    How rural is too rural for transit?: Optimal transit subsidies and supply in rural areas2020Ingår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 88, artikel-id 102859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal supply of rail and bus in low density areas is studied by calibrating a demand and supply model with three modes (car, bus and rail) to an existing low density corridor. Varying the length of the network, the frequencies and the size of the populations, allows to study the trade-off between the consumer surplus losses of the public transport users and the transit operation and maintenance costs savings. We find that for an existing rail network, the optimization of frequency is the prime source of welfare gains. The rail network is marginally beneficial in the sense that keeping the network is welfare improving as long as there is no major repair or replacement investment needed. When population in the smaller towns decreases strongly, it becomes welfare improving to close the existing rail network but a bus service remains beneficial for at least part of the network. © 2020 The Authors

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Kristofferesson, Ida
    Sweco.
    The gothenburg congestion charge. Effects, design and politics2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 75, s. 134-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the traffic effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. The system is similar to the system introduced in Stockholm in 2006; both are designed as time-of-day dependent cordon pricing systems. We find that many effects and adaptation strategies are similar to those found in Stockholm, indicating a high transferability between smaller and larger cities with substantial differences in public transport use. However, there are also important differences regarding some of the effects, the accuracy of the model forecasts and public support arising from different topologies, public transport use, congestion levels and main objectives communicated to the public. Finally, the Gothenburg case suggests that whether congestion charges are introduced or not depends on the support among the political parties, and that this is determined primarily by the prevailing institutional setting and power over revenues, and to a lower extent by the public support, and benefits from congestion reduction.

  • 3. Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Lorenzo-Varela, Juan-Manuel
    Public Transport: One mode or several?2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a methodology for testing and implementing differences in preferences for a set of public transport modes, relating to observed and unobserved attributes, in state-of-practice large-scale travel demand models. Results of a case study for commuters in the Stockholm public transport system suggest that there are preference differences among public transport modes, and that they are captured by unobserved attributes. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differences proportional to the in-vehicle time, suggesting that characteristics of in-vehicle time in different public transport modes, such as comfort, are valued equally by the travellers. We also found that the value of time is higher for auxiliary modes than for the main mode, and that the unobserved preference for metro is highest and the preference for light rail lowest.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Public Transport: One mode or several?
  • 4.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    The Gothenburg congestion charges: CBA and equity2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post cost- benefit and equity analysis of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. We base the analysis on observed effects transport model that is able to predict the effect of the charges on travel times and traffic volumes with high accuracy. We find that the net social benefit of the charge is positive. However, we also show that the system is regressive. Low income citizens pay a larger share of their income for three reasons. First, all income classes are highly car dependent in Gothenburg, due to the relatively low public transport share. Second, workers in the highest income class have considerably higher access to company cars, and are therefore either exempt from paying the charge, or can deduce the charge from their income tax. Third, high income individuals have higher values of time. Moreover, the revenue is spent mainly on a rail tunnel, which primarily benefits commuters residing far out in the region.

  • 5.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH.
    Forecasting effects of congestion charges2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post evaluation of the transport model forecast of the effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. We find that the predicted traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was under-predicted in off-peak. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, including a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data, but had to be adjusted to be consistent with observed outcome. One reason for the discrepancy may be that VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal travellers’ long-term preferences. Another reason may be that apart from distance, travel time and charge there are other factors that determine drivers’ route choice.

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