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  • 1.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Multi-Criteria Data Quality Assessment Maintenance perspective2014In: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications / [ed] Uday Kumar; Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Philip Tretten, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2014, p. 153-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data quality (DQ) in maintenance has become an increasinglyimportant aspect to many firms as most of the maintenanceplanning and implementations are based on data analysis. PoorDQ has adverse effects at the operational, tactical, and strategiclevels of any organization. Respectively, poor DQ reducescustomer satisfaction, leading to poor decision making, and hasnegative impacts on strategy execution. To improve DQ as well asto evaluate the current status, DQ need to be measured followingthe fact that only what can be measured can be improved. Ameasure for DQ could be an important support for decisionmakers. In order to assess DQ, related attributes should bedefined. These attributes could be related to the data itself, to themetadata, or to the data representation schemes. After definingthese attributes, an assessment model should be used to evaluatethese attributes. The purpose of this paper is to propose a modelfor DQ assessment. Therefore, a study of DQ attributes and thepossible metrics that could be used to measure these attributes wasundertaken. The proposed model will be applied on datasetprovided by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket)for validation and to find an estimation measure of the DQ.

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    fulltext
  • 2.
    Aljumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    eMaintenance Ontologies for Data Quality Support2015In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 358-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the main ontologies related to eMaintenance solutions and to study their application area. The advantages of using these ontologies to improve and control data quality will be investigated.

    Design/methodology/approach – A literature study has been done to explore the eMaintenance ontologies in the different areas. These ontologies are mainly related to content structure and communication interface. Then, ontologies will be linked to each step of the data production process in maintenance.

    Findings – The findings suggest that eMaintenance ontologies can help to produce a high quality data in maintenance. The suggested maintenance data production process may help to control data quality. Using these ontologies in every step of the process may help to provide management tools to provide high quality data.

    Research limitations/implications – Based on this study, it can be concluded that further research could broaden the investigation to identify more eMaintenance ontologies. Moreover, studying these ontologies in more technical details may help to increase the understandability and the use of these standards.

    Practical implications – It has been concluded in this study that applying eMaintenance ontologies by companies needs additional cost and time. Also the lack or the ineffective use of eMaintenance tools in many enterprises is one of the limitations for using these ontologies.

    Originality/value – Investigating eMaintenance ontologies and connecting them to maintenance data production is important to control and manage the data quality in maintenance.

  • 3.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Assessment of railway frequency converter performance and data quality using the IEEE 762 Standard2014In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 42694-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability, availability and maintainability analysis is one of the most important tools for measuring system performance. The performance of a traction power supply system (TPSS) can be measured using the data collected from frequency converters, as these converters constitute the main part of the TPSS. The quality of the collected data should be good enough to provide the correct and complete information necessary for assessment of frequency converter performance. Many methods can be used to assess the performance of converters such as neural networks, fuzzy logic and standards. The IEEE 762 Standard offers a methodology that can provide key performance indicators for power generation units. This standard has been chosen for its widespread acceptance and applicability. To be able to evaluate a converter’s performance, IEEE 762 indexes should be calculated using data such as the downtime, reserve shutdown hours and service hours. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the performance of the Swedish TPSS frequency converters using IEEE 762, and to assess the quality of data by inspecting their compatibility with this standard. In this study, an application has been developed to generate the missing information and to calculate the indexes provided by the standard, in order to evaluate the power converters’ performance. A case with sample data is also discussed in this paper.

  • 4.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Rauhala, Ville
    Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Science.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    Department of Informatics, Umeå University.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Aspects of data quality in eMaintenance: a case study of process industry in northern Europe2014In: Engineering Asset Management 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management / [ed] Jay Lee; Jun Ni; Jagnathan Sarangapani; Joseph Mathew, London: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag , 2014, p. 41-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased environmental awareness in the industry combined with the globalized market economy makes increasing demands for sustainable and efficient resource utilization. In this context, maintenance plays a critical role by linking business objectives to the strategic and operational activities aimed at retaining the system’s availability performance, cost-efficiency and sustainability. Performing maintenance effectively and efficiently requires corresponding infrastructure for decision-support provided through eMaintenance solutions. A proper eMaintenance solution needs to provide services for data acquisition, data processing, data aggregation, data analysis, data visualization, context-sensing etc. To en Quality of Service (QoS) in eMaintenance solutions, the performance of both system-of-interest, enabling systems and related processes have to be measured and managed. However, the QoS has to be considered on all aggregation levels and encompass the aspects of Content Quality (CQ), Data Quality (DQ) and Information Quality (IQ). Hence, the purpose of this paper is to study and describe some aspects of DQ in eMaintenance related to process industry in northern Europe

  • 5.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Rauhala, Ville
    Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Science Technology, Kemi, Finland.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Data quality in eMaintenance: a call for research2011In: MPMM 2011: Maintenance Performance Measurement & Management: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Diego Galar; Aditya Parida; Håkan Schunnesson; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2011, p. 69-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and efficient maintenance requires a proper information logistics, which can be delivered through eMaintenance solutions. Development of eMaintenance solutions faces extensive challenges. One of these challenges is how to ensure the quality of data used in different eMaintenance solutions. Data Quality (DQ) concerns all phases of the maintenance process.

    The purpose of this paper is to answer the research question: How should DQ be considered and managed when developing eMaintenance solutions?

    To deal with such challenges a case study was conducted at a mining company. Empirical data has been collected through interviews, observations, archival records and workshops.

    The data analysis has been based on an empirical framework that supports the identification of required information services. Conditions that support the DQ and the information logistics, along with that, support the maintenance process have been presented. These aspects have also been related to the phases of a generic maintenance process.

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  • 6.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    eMaintenance ontologies and data production2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2012, p. 191-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on the integrity and interoperability of data in maintenance are constantly increasing. For many enterprises,achieving these demands in their operation and maintenance processes is challenging. In order to enable informationexchange between systems and their actors, using effectively andefficiently usable way, there are two essential issues which need to be addressed: i) content structure - which addresses with the description of the content’s inherent elements and also the relationship between these elements; and ii) communication interface – which addresses the interface through which each specific content will be exposed.

    There are a lot of eMaintenance ontologies which may help to solve these issues.The aim of this paper is to: i) explore the main ontologies related to eMaintenance solutions and to inspect how Data Quality (DQ) aspect is considered within these ontologies; ii) propose a process called “Maintenance Data Production” and to find the relation between ontologies and their role during data production stages.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Pallari, Robert
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Larsson, Dan
    Damill AB, Luleå, Damill AB.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Slutrapport avseende hjulprofilmätare i Sunderbyn2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till projektets genomförande har varit den ökande mängden rälsbyten och mängden trafik med 30 tons axellast på Malmbanan. Spårunderhållet och hjulunderhållet har idag de överlägset högsta underhållskostnaderna av järnvägens olika system. Hjulprofilmätaren sågs som en möjlighet att kunna plocka ut de hjul som närmade sig underhållsgränserna för slitage, och därigenom kunna styra underhållet mer kostnadseffektivt.LKAB och Trafikverket enades därför att sätta upp ett gemensamt projekt där en ny typ av mätutrustning utprovades. För att få stöd med datalagring, bearbetning av data mm anlitades LTU och eMaintenanceLAB. Syftet med projektet har varit att undersöka och verifiera att en utrustning för automatisk hjulprofilmätning kan klara av att registrera och larma vid hjulpassager som avviker från de säkerhetsgränser och underhållsgränser som definieras i projektet med hänsyn till vårt klimat och våra förhållanden på Malmbanan. Den bärande idén i detta projekt har varit att man genom en kontinuerlig mätning av hjulprofiler ska kunna ta ut fordon ur trafik innan den avvikande hjulprofilen ger upphov till ett accelererande hjul- och rälslitage och därigenom sänka underhållskostnaden och öka livslängden på både hjul och räl. Projektet har även lett till en högre säkerhet på spåret då man kan mäta hjul som passerat säkerhetsgränsen för hjulparametrar och plockar bort dem, detta var inte var möjligt tidigare. De slutsatser som kan dras från detta projekt är följande:• Utvecklingsprojekt kan med fördel genomföras gemensamt mellan industri, infrastrukturförvaltare och akademi. • För att säkerställa ett bra resultat är det viktigt att genomföra alla steg i ett projekt från koncept till överlämnande. Som stöd för detta har V-modellen används som representerar livscykeln för systemet enligt EN-50126.• Val av tekniklösning och leverantör har gjorts utifrån tekniknivå, referensanläggningar samt drift- och supportmöjlighet och inte enbart utifrån pris. Ett utvecklingsprojekt likt detta handlar inte primärt om att få en utrustning i drift utan överföring av ”know how” kring vilka möjligheter och begränsningar det finns med denna teknik.• Resursbehovet för test och utvärdering underskattades och gjorde att projektet försenades ett år jämfört med ursprunglig tidplan. • Informationen som genereras från denna utrustning är mycket användbar för alla parter som arbetar med utveckling av underhåll inom järnvägen. • Utmaningen för att tillgodogöra sig nyttan från mätstationen ligger i att kunna förädla och integrera de genererade tillståndsdata till respektive underhållsorganisation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Pallari, Robert
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Larsson, Dan
    Damill AB, Luleå, Damill AB.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Slutrapport avseende hjulprofilmätare i Sunderbyn2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till projektets genomförande har varit den ökande mängden rälsbyten och mängden trafik med 30 tons axellast på Malmbanan. Spårunderhållet och hjulunderhållet har idag de överlägset högsta underhållskostnaderna av järnvägens olika system. Hjulprofilmätaren sågs som en möjlighet att kunna plocka ut de hjul som närmade sig underhållsgränserna för slitage, och därigenom kunna styra underhållet mer kostnadseffektivt.LKAB och Trafikverket enades därför att sätta upp ett gemensamt projekt där en ny typ av mätutrustning utprovades. För att få stöd med datalagring, bearbetning av data mm anlitades LTU och eMaintenanceLAB. Syftet med projektet har varit att undersöka och verifiera att en utrustning för automatisk hjulprofilmätning kan klara av att registrera och larma vid hjulpassager som avviker från de säkerhetsgränser och underhållsgränser som definieras i projektet med hänsyn till vårt klimat och våra förhållanden på Malmbanan. Den bärande idén i detta projekt har varit att man genom en kontinuerlig mätning av hjulprofiler ska kunna ta ut fordon ur trafik innan den avvikande hjulprofilen ger upphov till ett accelererande hjul- och rälslitage och därigenom sänka underhållskostnaden och öka livslängden på både hjul och räl. Projektet har även lett till en högre säkerhet på spåret då man kan mäta hjul som passerat säkerhetsgränsen för hjulparametrar och plockar bort dem, detta var inte var möjligt tidigare. De slutsatser som kan dras från detta projekt är följande:• Utvecklingsprojekt kan med fördel genomföras gemensamt mellan industri, infrastrukturförvaltare och akademi. • För att säkerställa ett bra resultat är det viktigt att genomföra alla steg i ett projekt från koncept till överlämnande. Som stöd för detta har V-modellen används som representerar livscykeln för systemet enligt EN-50126.• Val av tekniklösning och leverantör har gjorts utifrån tekniknivå, referensanläggningar samt drift- och supportmöjlighet och inte enbart utifrån pris. Ett utvecklingsprojekt likt detta handlar inte primärt om att få en utrustning i drift utan överföring av ”know how” kring vilka möjligheter och begränsningar det finns med denna teknik.• Resursbehovet för test och utvärdering underskattades och gjorde att projektet försenades ett år jämfört med ursprunglig tidplan. • Informationen som genereras från denna utrustning är mycket användbar för alla parter som arbetar med utveckling av underhåll inom järnvägen. • Utmaningen för att tillgodogöra sig nyttan från mätstationen ligger i att kunna förädla och integrera de genererade tillståndsdata till respektive underhållsorganisation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Candell, Olov
    et al.
    Saab Aerotech, Aircraft Services Division, Linköping, SE-581 88, Sweden.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Server-oriented information logistics as support to intelligent transport services2010In: 16th World Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems 2009: 16th ITS World Congress ; Stockholm, Sweden, 21 - 25 September 2009, Curran Associates, Inc. , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today‟s society is dependent on an increasing volume of transportation services, which contributes to escalating requirements on economy, dependability, safety, and sustainability of applied transportation systems. When dealing with complex transportation systems with long life cycles, maintenance is fundamental to ensure these critical requirements. The increasing requirements and the technological development have also lead to the emerging approach of eMaintenance, which applies innovative Information & Communication Technology (ICT) to achieve effective information logistics for maintenance purposes. This paper describes the role and development of service-oriented eMaintenance solutions to enable intelligent transportation services and some related research efforts within railway and aviation.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Galar, Diego
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Berges, Luis
    Department of Design Engineering and Manufacturing, University of Zaragoza.
    The evolution from e(lectronic)Maintenance to i(ntelligent)Maintenance2012In: The Ninth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, 2012, p. 203-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    iMaintenance stands for integrated, intelligent and immediate maintenance. It integrates various maintenance functions and connects these to all devices, using advanced communication technologies. The main challenge is to integrate the disparate systems and capabilities developed under current eMaintenance models and to make them immediately accessible through intelligent computing technologies. iMaintenance systems are computer-based, able to evolve with the system that they monitor and control, and they can be embedded in the system’s components, providing the ability to integrate new functionality with no downtime. This article will show how iMaintenance systems can provide decision-making support, thereby going beyond merely connecting various maintenance systems.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Juntti, Ulla
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Larsson, Lillemor
    Tyréns AB.
    Implementation of eMaintenance concept within the Swedish railway2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An available, reliable and well-maintained railway is the foundation for competition and market growth. Demands on high standardsfor reliable rail transport, tight turnaround times and high utilization of resources (machines, workshops , staff) makes minimumdisturbance in the system to quickly disrupt the entire process of lost capacity, delays and reduced quality to customers as a result.The Swedish railway composed after deregulation, of several different parties, each one with individually objectives and strategy tomaintain their assets and rolling stock. Although some data are railway system common no greater sharing of operation andmaintenance data exists, which creates the risk of sub-optimisation.Luleå Railway Research Center (JVTC) has since 2005 determinedly conducted research in eMaintenance with the aim of usingdifferent types of condition data to develop decision support using preventive measures to prevent disruption of the railway systemin a cost effective manner. eMaintenance aims to perform and control the maintenance with help of condition data and isinterdisciplinary field based on the information and communication technology ( ICT) to ensure that maintenance is carried out inline with both the customer and the supplier's business goals and intrinsic components in all parts of a system's life cycle.eMaintenance concept has developed progressively over the years and now it is acdcepted o be implemented as a pilot project calledePilot119 in the north part of Sweden on track section 119 between Luleå and Boden. ePilot119 delivers a collaboration platform forthe development needs and requirements from various stakeholders to find solutions that enable and transform the Swedishfragmented rail industry to and an integrated system. ePilot 119 will demonstrate the advantages of working with informationtechnology and data in real time to control railway traffic and service. The approach is based on enhanced collaborationmethodology with a framework project and a central team that is unifying for finding smaller sub-projects for transform ePilot119 toa common natural process for sharing maintenance decision support for the railway. The pilot project aims to demonstrate thathigher availability, enhanced capacity and a cost efficient railway operation can be created using the information that is ineMaintenance lab when used in the right way at the. The goal and strategy and the methodology will be to implemented as a naturalapproach to section 119 and then successively implemented in other sections of track in Sweden.

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Jägare, Veronica
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Omicold AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Trafikverket (Swedish transport administration), Sweden.
    A framework for testbed concept in railway2019In: Proceedings of the International Heavy Haul Association STS Conference (IHHA 2019) / [ed] P.O. Larsson-Kråik; A. Ahmadi, International Heavy Haul Association (IHHA) , 2019, p. 986-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One major prerequisite for an effective implementation and innovation process is the enablement and provision of a collaborative environment. A common area for multi-organisational collaboration together with a technology platform, enabling data sharing and Big Data Analytics, has been developed called ‘Testbed Railway’ with a corresponding framework ‘Railway 4.0’. Testbed Railway can be used to strengthen the railway industry's adaptability and competitiveness by developing and providing a testbed for research and innovation in the rail industry, nationally and internationally.

  • 13.
    Jägare, Veronica
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Trafikverket.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Trafikverket.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Omicold AB.
    Change management in digitalised operation and maintenance of railway2019In: PROCEEDINGS: International Heavy Haul Association Conference June 2019, 2019, p. 904-911Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, railway is experiencing a major technology transformation (or paradigm shift), triggered by the enhanced utilisation of digital technology. This technological transformation affects not only the technical systems, i.e. railway infrastructure and rolling stock, but also regulations, organisations, processes,and individuals. Hence, hardware, software, but also liveware (i.e. humans) are affected. Today, the digitalisation of railway is characterised by digital services. There are also a range of challenges, e.g. data acquisition,transformation, modelling, processing, visualisation, safety, security, quality, and information assurance. To deal with these challenges, the railway industry needs to define strategies, which enable a smooth transformation of the existing configuration to a digitalised system. Digital railway requires a holistic change management approach based on system-of-systems thinking and a set of appropriate technologies and methodologies. The railway digitalisation strategy should be based on systematic risk management that address aspects of, e.g., information security, traffic safety and project risk. In addition, managing changes for a digitalised railway effectively and efficiently also requires a framework for aspects such as needs finding, requirement identification, and impact of changes for individual, teams and organisation. In this work a major case studywithin the ePilot, has been performed in context of the operation and maintenance processes of the Swedish railway. Therefore, this paper aims to propose a framework for implementing innovations and driving change in a digitalised railway.

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  • 14.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Fundamentals of the eMaintenance concept2010In: Proceedings of the 1st international workshop and congress on eMaintenance, Luleå tekniska universitet , 2010, p. 147-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many intellectual, societal, business and technological forces are continuously pushing forward the frontiers of science. When being combined effectively, they may provide an umbrella for generating new fields and exploring new grounds. One such emerging field is eMaintenance. It is based on the fields from operation & maintenance engineering, software engineering, information systems, business management, and a myriad of strongly varying fields related to the application domains of eMaintenance.

    As a novel field, eMaintenance addresses new needs and provides various benefits in form of increased availability, reduced lifecycle cost and increased customer-value. On the other hand, being in a continuous flux, it suffers from many infant illnesses in form of lack of or fuzzy definitions and theoretical foundations.

    This paper explores the domain of eMaintenance. In striving toward that end, it defines the eMaintenance concept by identifying its essential constituents and characteristics, mapping out its application domains and by eliciting its intellectual opportunities and challenges.

    Finally, the paper reasons about the future of eMaintenance as an emerging field and identifies research questions that may serve as the impetus for defining future research strategies. Last but not least, it lists challenges to be met by the organizations transferring to eMainteannce and advocates to the eMaintenance community to further elaborate and improve the eMaintenance concept.

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  • 15.
    Karim, Ramin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Signaler och system.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Cloud-based emaintenance solutions for condition-based maintenance of wheels in heavy haul operation2015In: 11th International Heavy Haul Conference, (IHHA 2015): 21 – 24 June 2015, Perth, Australia, International Heavy Haul Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish ore line, began in 1898 and was completed and operational by 1902. The line was later electrified and remains so to this day. A study on wheel-rail interaction, to optimize wheel and rail profiles on the Malmbanan and Ofoten lines states that there is a need to develop and apply limit values for the allowable length of single and multiple cracks on wheels. Herein, all stakeholders in the railway organization have to be involved. Provisioning of an integrated decision support system for track and vehicle contributes to increased efficiency and improved effectiveness of the maintenance process, which in turn enables achievement of business excellence. However, an integrated decision support process for maintenance is highly dependent on appropriate information logistics which enables information provisioning to various maintenance stakeholders. One emerging approach for development of eMaintenance solutions is utilization of cloud-based technologies. Cloud-based eMaintenance solutions promises smooth information logistics for maintenance decision support. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to propose an approach for condition-based maintenance decision-making relating to railway vehicle wheels, based on a cloud-based eMaintenance solution. The paper also demonstrates how the proposed approach can be implemented for estimation of Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of railway vehicle wheels.

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  • 16.
    Karim, Ramin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Candell, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    eMaintenance industrial applications: issues and challenges2014In: Engineering Asset Management 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management / [ed] Jay Lee; Jun Ni; Jagnathan Sarangapani; Joseph Mathew, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag , 2014, p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving business excellence within industries which utilise complex technical systems requires effective and efficient maintenance. Maintenance is an important enabler of business performance. An effective maintenance strategy creates additional values in an organisation’s value-generating process. Establishing an effective and efficient maintenance process is highly dependent on supporting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure for information logistics that facilitates maintenance decision support. eMaintenance solutions facilitates effective and efficient management and control of maintenance activities through an enhanced utilisation of computing; like;.estimation of their Remaining Useful Life (RUL); reduction of No-Fault Found (NFF); and prediction of fault. eMaintenance solutions enable a seamless integration and fusion of information services provided by information intensive systems with embedded components in order to manage increasing and extentensively distributed real‐time data collected via different data sources (e. g. sensors). Since, the emerging ‘Internet of Things’ is expecting to dramatically change information systems with inherent embedded components, eMaintenance solutions need to be adapted to this new context to fulfil the overall business requirements on an effective and efficient decision-making process; for e.g.: real‐time analysis based on real‐time data and context-aware information logistics. However, development and establishment of proper eMaintenance solutions can be facilitated through utilisation of appropriate framework which deals with real-world challenges. This paper explores some of the issues and challenges pertaining to eMaintenance industrial application.

  • 17.
    Karim, Ramin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Parida, AdityaLuleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.Kumar, UdayLuleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Compilation of papers presented in the technical sessions during the eMaintenance 2012. Some selected papers from the proceedings will be published in the international journals.

    The congress aims to provide a platform for discussions on the effective utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and emerging technologies in eMaintenance.

    The themes cover various areas, including data warehousing and data mining, embedded system technologies, diagnosis and prognosis, data quality, operation performance monitoring, information logistics, performance-based logistics, decision support, enterprise resource planning, data and service fusion, integrated logistics support, maintenance optimization, prognostic health management, and life cycle management.

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  • 18.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    E-monitoring of operation and maintenance task under difficult visual work environment2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2012, p. 167-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring objects of interest and obtaining their clear visual appearances are critical requirements for outdoor maintenance tasks and surveillance systems. The difficulties while processing outdoor images are the presence of haze, fog or dust which fades the colours and reduces the contrast of the observed objects. Under bad weather conditions, the light is severely scattered by the atmosphere and images of railway track, coal mine, aviation etc. become degraded.

    This paper implements a technique for restoring the visibility of weather degraded videos and to detect and track the objects in foggy weather. It has been concluded in the paper that with the application of visibility enhancement algorithm the PSNR for low foggy images is more as compared to high foggy images. Further, the error rate is less for low foggy images. The real time application of the work is to detect objects from the enhanced foggy video that can be used for outdoor operation and maintenance tasks monitoring. 

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  • 19.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Cloud Computing for Maintenance Performance Improvement2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud Computing is an emerging research area. It can be utilised for acquiring an effective and efficient information logistics. This paper uses cloud-based technology for the establishment of information logistics for railway system which requires information based on data from different data sources (e.g. railway maintenance, railway operation, and railway business data). In order to improve the performance of the maintenance process relevant data from various sources need to be acquired, filtered, fused, integrated, and analysed for decision making and to facilitate for example, diagnostics and prognostics decisions. The process of maintenance information provisioning is highly dependent on an appropriate information logistics. In this paper the authors have tried to study the improvement in the maintenance performance of railway operations in Sweden.

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  • 20.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Applications of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology with eMaintenance cloud for railway system2014In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) helps automatic identification of objects using radio waves. This is not a new technology instead decades old and has been used during the World War II, when it was used by allied ground forces to track German bombers. It is a technology for wireless communication between a reader and a transponder/tag. This technology permits the transfer of data to the most diverse objects without the need for physical contact and uses intelligent barcodes to track items and have been successfully applied in military, security, healthcare, real time location tracking, vehicle identification and other areas. This paper is based on applications of radio frequency identification technology with eMaintenance cloud for railway system to analyze and visualize data of trains for the cost effective maintenance planning. Further, cloud computing is an emerging research area that can be utilised for acquiring an effective and efficient information logistics. Specifically, the widespread use of RFID will enable wagons to be tracked leading to better resource utilization, lower freight costs, and better maintenance. Therefore, it helps to provide greater control of the train carriages, making it easier to plan resources. However, RFID is a powerful tool that can help to improve industry proficiency, implementing this technology is not easy. Furthermore, operating RFID systems can be a challenging process. Thus, this paper is based on the application of RFID in the context of railway operation.

  • 21.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    EMaintenance solutions for railway maintenance decisions2015In: World Congress on Engineering, WCE 2014: London, 2 - 4 July 2014 / [ed] S.I. Ao; Len Gelman; David W.L. Hukins; Andrew Hunter; Alexander Korsunsky, Hong Kong: Newswood Limited , 2015, p. 228-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term eMaintenance emerged in the early 2000s and has become a popular topic in maintenance related literature because of ongoing technological improvements. This paper uses a recent approach, i.e. cloud-based technology, to provide an eMaintenance solution for online time data analysis to make effective and efficient railway maintenance decisions. Due to increased traffic, the Swedish railway sector needs to optimise maintenance, using predictive maintenance to a much higher degree so that unplanned breakdowns and downtime are drastically reduced. The paper shows how research within the railway sector is developing eMaintenance solutions using the cloud and web-based applications for improved condition monitoring, better maintenance and increased uptime. In the proposed solution, data are acquired from railway measurement stations and sent to the eMaintenance cloud, where they are filtered, fused, integrated and analysed to assist maintenance decisions. The paper provides a concept for a web-based eMaintenance solution to assist railway maintenance stakeholders make fact-based decisions and develop more efficient and economically sound maintenance policies.

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  • 22.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    eMaintenance solution through online data analysis for railway maintenance decision-making2014In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 262-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how research within the railway sector is developing eMaintenance solutions using the cloud and web-based applications for improved condition monitoring, better maintenance and increased uptime. This eMaintenance solution is based on the on-line data acquisition, integration and analysis leading to effective maintenance decision making.Design/methodology/approach – In the proposed methodology, data are acquired from railway measurement stations to the eMaintenance cloud, where they are filtered, fused, integrated and analyzed to assist maintenance decisions. Extensive consultation with stakeholders has resulted in the analysis of railway data.Findings – The paper provides a concept for a web-based eMaintenance solution for railway maintenance stakeholders for making fact-based decisions and develops more efficient and economically sound maintenance policies. Train wheels reaching their maintenance and safety limits are visualised in grids and graphs to assist stakeholders in making the appropriate maintenance decisions.Practical implications – In this paper the authors have demonstrated that the wheel profile and force data can be remotely collected through cloud utilization. The information generated can be used for maintenance decision making. Similarly, other measurable data can also be utilized for maintenance decision making.Originality/value – This paper describes the importance of eMaintenance solution through online data analysis to make effective and efficient railway maintenance decisions, as a case study.

  • 23.
    Kumar, Uday
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, RaminLuleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.Parida, AdityaLuleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.Tretten, PhillipLuleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compilation of papers presented in the technical sessions during the eMaintenance 2014.

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  • 24.
    Kumar, Uday
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Special issue on eMaintenance solutions and technologies: guest editorial2010In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 187-188Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Guest Editorial - Special issue on eMaintenance solutions and technologies

  • 25.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Verma, Ajint
    Stord/Haugesund University College, Haugesund.
    Fransson, Niklas
    Trafikverket.
    Comparison of frequency converter outages: a case study on Swedish TPS system2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to survey the unavailability of the two main types of converters used in the Swedish traction power supply (TPS) system, i.e. the rotary and the static converter. The number of outages and the outage rate has been used to analyze and compare the unavailability of rotary and static converters. The mean cumulative function (MCF) has been used to analyze the number of outages and the unavailability trends, while the forced outage rate (FOR) concept has been used to analyze the outage rates.

    The study shows that the outages due to converter failure occur at a constant rate by calendar time at most of the converter stations, while very few stations have an increasing or a decreasing rate. It has also been found that the static converters have a higher number of outages and a higher outage rate by calendar time compared to the rotary converter types.

    The results of the study show that combining the number of outages and the forced outage rate gives a better view of the converters’ performance, and provides support for the maintenance decision. In fact, using one of them alone does not reflect reality. Comparing these two indexes is also helpful in identifying the areas where extra resources are needed to improve maintenance planning and where improvements can reduce the outage in the TPS system.

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  • 26.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Assessment of reliability data for traction frequency converters using IEEE Std 762: a study at Swedish railway2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2012, p. 171-174Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 27.
    Morant, Amparo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Improvement of configuration management in railway signalling system2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Ramin Karim; Aditya Parita; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2012, p. 23-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway network composed by different systems, such assignalling, power supply, rolling stock and others. The signalling system is used for control, supervision and protection of railway traffic. Its reliability, maintainability and related maintenance support affect the availability of the railway network. Often,signalling system itself is considered as a system-of-systems spread over a wide geographical area and consists of a large number of items with different lifecycle. However, managing a complex technical system with large number of items in different lifecycle phases to achieve required availability is challenging. One major challenge is to define and describe the structure and relation between the system’s inherent items at any specific period of time, i.e. the configuration of the system. The system configuration is important during the design and manufacturing of systems, but it is also essential during the utilisation and retirement of a system. Furthermore, system configuration can be considered as an essential data container to which other data sources can be related, e.g. design data, reliability data, maintainability data, operation data, and maintenance data. Aproper management of configuration data is highly important during a system’s whole lifecycle, e.g. the railway signalling system. Hence, the purpose of this paper is investigate how the process of configuration management related to railway signalling system can be improved through utilisation of Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI).

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  • 28.
    Söderholm, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    An enterprise risk management framework for evaluation of eMaintenance2010In: Proceedings of the 1st international workshop and congress on eMaintenance, Luleå tekniska universitet , 2010, p. 133-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance is one approach to manage risk by a reduction of the probability of failure of technical systems and/or the consequences of their failure. However, history has shown that erroneous maintenance also can lead to reduced quality, incidents and accidents with extensive losses.

    Today, eMaintenance promises great opportunities for a paradigm shift from a rather narrow condition-based maintenance approach with focus on technical system health to a true risk-based maintenance approach that considers organisational excellence. This is achieved by proper information logistic solutions that address the needs of all stakeholders of the maintenance process, which are possible due to new and innovative Information & Communication Technology (ICT).

    However, all opportunities are also linked with some threats, which seldom are highlighted in the case of eMaintenance. In this paper, a risk management framework for evaluation of eMaintenance solutions is proposed. The framework is based on a combination of international standards (e.g. ISO 31000, ISO/IEC 27000, and IEC 60300-3-14) to achieve integrated Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) and enable a linkage of eMaintenance to strategic goals of an organisation. The framework is illustrated in the context of the Swedish Rail Administration.

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  • 29.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Usability-based eMaintenance for effective performance measurement2011In: MPMM 2011: Maintenance Performance Measurement & Management: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Diego Galar; Aditya Parida; Håkan Schunnesson; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2011, p. 53-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s providers of eMaintenance solutions for maintenance and support related to complex technical systems are facing increasing amounts of information flow with the increased complexity of managing data. Organizations developing and providing maintenance support solutions and services also need to improve the capability to efficiently and effectively exploit the increasing amount of design data, product data, operational data, and maintenance data during the system’s whole lifecycle. eMaintenance includes monitoring, collection, recording, and distribution of real-time system health data, maintenance-generated data, as well as, other decision and performance-support information to different types of users.

    To address the challenges that arise in complex information environments providers need to adapt usability-centered methodologies, technologies, and tools that enable utilization of the advantages eMaintenance solutions can give. Since humans make critical maintenance decisions based upon system performance measured by use of available data, it is necessary that the users understand the underlying data correctly in the correct context.

    Subsequently the amount of maintenance data is increasing constantly, thus, human factors issues need to be considered in development of eMaintenance solutions so that performance quality, productivity, and profitability are maintained. In turn this would also reduce situations where too much or incorrect information would decrement the users cognitive capabilities to make good decisions.

    The usability challenges faced by eMaintenance are complex and need to be taken seriously. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to explore eMaintenance design challenges based upon user issues in complex system environments. The results of this paper will present an overview of areas that need to be considered for further research within the field of eMaintenance.

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  • 30.
    Wandt, Karina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Usability aspects of eMaintenance solutions2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2012, p. 77-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As technological development progresses in society, there are several new possibilities to make the maintenance process in industry more efficient. Today, eMaintenance solutions facilitate data management in maintenance activities; data can easily be integrated and shared between sources in heterogeneous environments. This enables systems used in maintenance, such as Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS), to base decisions on various data, e.g. data produced in other processes. These systems often fulfil the technical requirements (e.g. data consistency control) required to support activities in the maintenance process (e.g. management, support planning, and assessment), but the human interaction with the systems is still essential to the quality of the work performed.

    Since many maintenance activities require manual input of data the interaction between user, e.g. technician, and system, e.g. CMMS, has impact on the quality of the data; in order for the data to be right and relevant, the technician may need supporting directives from the CMMS. Hence, the system usability must be considered when assuring the quality of the manually inputted data. 

    The focus of this paper is to investigate CMMS limitation issues due to usability aspects. Furthermore, the paper discusses the role of context awareness within user interfaces managing data obtained through eMaintenance solutions and presents ideas for future research on context awareness in eMaintenance solutions. Data and conclusions have been conducted through literature studies and case studies within the area.

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  • 31.
    Zhang, Liangwei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Big Data Mining in eMaintenance: An Overview2014In: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications / [ed] Uday Kumar; Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Philip Tretten, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2014, p. 159-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance related data are tending to be increasingly huge involume, rapid in velocity and vast in variety. Data with thesecharacteristics bring new challenges with respect to data analysisand data mining, which requires new approaches andtechnologies. In industry, related research and applications, somecontributions have been provided to utilize Big Data technologiesfor extraction of information through pattern recognitionmechanisms via eMaintenance solutions. Today, the existingcontributions are not enabling a holistic approach for maintenancedata analysis and therefore are insufficient. However, theimmense value hidden inside the Big Data in eMaintenance isarousing more and more attention from both academia andindustry. Hence, this paper aims to explore eMaintenancesolutions for maintenance decision-making through utilization ofBig Data technologies and approaches. The paper discusses BigData mining in eMaintenance through a general manner byemploying one of the widely accepted frameworks with the nameof Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISPDM).In addition, the paper outlines features of maintenance dataand investigates six sub-processes (i.e. business understanding,data understanding, data preparation, modeling, evaluation anddeployment) of data mining applications defined by CRISP-DMwithin the domain of eMaintenance.

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  • 32.
    Zhang, Liangwei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Lin, Janet
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    An Angle-based Subspace Anomaly Detection Approach to High-dimensional Data: With an Application to Industrial Fault Detection2015In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 142, p. 482-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy of traditional anomaly detection techniques implemented on full-dimensional spaces degrades significantly as dimensionality increases, thereby hampering many real-world applications. This work proposes an approach to selecting meaningful feature subspace and conducting anomaly detection in the corresponding subspace projection. The aim is to maintain the detection accuracy in high-dimensional circumstances. The suggested approach assesses the angle between all pairs of two lines for one specific anomaly candidate: the first line is connected by the relevant data point and the center of its adjacent points; the other line is one of the axis-parallel lines. Those dimensions which have a relatively small angle with the first line are then chosen to constitute the axis-parallel subspace for the candidate. Next, a normalized Mahalanobis distance is introduced to measure the local outlier-ness of an object in the subspace projection. To comprehensively compare the proposed algorithm with several existing anomaly detection techniques, we constructed artificial datasets with various high-dimensional settings and found the algorithm displayed superior accuracy. A further experiment on an industrial dataset demonstrated the applicability of the proposed algorithm in fault detection tasks and highlighted another of its merits, namely, to provide preliminary interpretation of abnormality through feature ordering in relevant subspaces.

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