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  • 1.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Berg, Jessica
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Henriksson, Per
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Eric, Sjögren
    Cykelpoolen i Sverige AB.
    Silvander, Therese
    Energikontor Norra Småland.
    GoMate – Diversifierad elfordonspool för den förtätade staden: slutrapport2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the GoMate project, EV sharing services has been tested in two residential areas located in the central city of Jönköping; services consisting of e-bikes, e-cargo bikes and e-cars. The aim of the project has been to investigate whether and to what extent EV sharing services can contribute to reduced car use in favor of the use of more sustainable mobility solutions. The results show that a diversified EV club has the potential to reduce car use. It is mainly the e-bike that replaces car trips for everyday travel, which in the long term can reduce car holdings in favor of the use of e-car services for occasional travel.

    However, if the potential is to be realized, price and business models are required for these services that stimulate reduced car use, considered as a process that can be expected to occur gradually over time. Such a process also needs to be supported by policy instruments and measures that limit car use in central city areas.

    If the potential is to be realized, the services also need to be scaled up considerably with respect to the number of vehicles per apartment. Although there was a relatively large EV club with a total of 17 (of which 15 were bicycles) vehicles for 160 households, which were tested in the project, it only had the capacity to supply a very small proportion of the residents' total travel, and with very little effects regarding reduction in energy use and carbon emissions.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Utvärdering PHEM-modellen: En förstudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration has stated that there is a need to develop the use of micro simulation models of fuel use and emissions of traffic that are used for transport planning. The aim of the project is to perform an evaluation of PHEM model to investigate conditions, opportunities and barriers to use it in transport planning. The following aspects have been assessed: License agreements, costs, rights, property issues; User friendliness; Content and calculation capabilities; Adjustment and development possibilities; Validation. Furthermore, simulation tests have been performed where fuel consumption and emissions of nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate mass and particle number has been calculated for roads with different road classes and for additional emissions and fuel use due to a vehicle stop.

    PHEM model is found to be relatively user-friendly, and with great opportunities to customize calculations. This makes the model complex, therefore it is recommended to start using PHEM with a short introductory course, even for used modellers. A conclusion of the evaluation is a recommendation to use PHEM for transport modelling. The database underlying the engine maps is constantly updated leading to more reliable emission calculations. The possibility to get a greater coherence in the calculations of the exhaust emissions of the different models that the Transport Administration advocate is also improved, which is a positive development. There are, also, some development possibilities that should be considered.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Cha, Yingying
    KTH.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys and Stockholm University.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    Particles in road and railroad tunnel air: sources, properties and abatement measures2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of air pollution are a common problem in both road and railroad tunnels. Sources and emission processes however differ significantly, as reflected by aerosols physical and chemical properties. As particle concentrations and properties affect exposure of and health effects for people on platforms and in vehicles, effective ways to reduce emissions and exposure are important. This study aims to improve the knowledge of the differences between PM10 in the rail and road tunnel environments, their sources and the possibilities to address problems with high particulate levels. Measurement campaigns were carried out at Arlanda Central, a railroad tunnel station below Arlanda airport and in Söderleden road tunnel, a road tunnel in central Stockholm.

    The results show large differences in concentration levels, size distributions and in composition of the particles. The railroad tunnel aerosol consisted of coarse particles with high iron content, while the properties of the coarse particles in the road tunnel were strongly influenced by whether the road surface was wet or dry. In wet conditions, concentrations were relatively low and iron and sulfur dominating elements, while silicon, potassium, calcium and iron from suspension and road wear dominated during dry conditions. The content of elemental carbon, most likely from the pantograph, were unexpectedly high in the railroad tunnel. An older type of train with a large proportion of mechanical brakes were suggested to be responsible to the main particle emissions in the railway tunnel. The report concludes with a discussion and proposals for action against particle sources in the various underground environments.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Möjligheter till minskade koldioxidutsläpp genom trafikledning: en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management can affect the emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through traffic exhaust emissions, but, to some extent, also since efficient traffic management can delay or avoid new investment in transportation infrastructure by streamlining the use of the existing structure.

    This project compiles existing literature evaluating the effects of traffic managements on climate gas emissions, i.e. how the management can alter traffic flows and how road users adapt to the information and how these changed traffic flows are reflected on emissions of climate gases. Some difficulties have been revealed, and further studies are recommended.

    Quantifying and evaluating the effects of climate gas emissions is heavily dependent on the emission models and assumptions used. Some development in this area is proposed, especially in driving behavior related to congestion situations. There is also a large habituation regarding road user effort to find and use traffic information which leads to increased opportunities for activities that affect emissions. Also, changes in behavior and technological advances should be taken into account if older investigations are used for decision making.

    The authors see great opportunities for VO traffic management and traffic information to reduce climate gas emissions from traffic by a conscious climate mitigation.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Uppdatering EVA-kalkylen: nya emissionsfaktorer beräknade med PHEM2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current European emission model, HBEFA, specifies emission factors for different driving patterns and vehicle types. This model does not study the example of individual intersections. This study utilizes the same microscopic model, PHEM (www.tugraz.at), as HBEFA to calculate also intersection emissions and emissions of links without intersections. With PHEM the release of four vehicle types (cars fueled by diesel or petrol and trucks with and without trailers) calculated for several different road classes according to the division still used in the models EVA and CAPCAL. To illustrate the emissions of intersections calculations for emissions for a quick stop to rest and then the withdrawal of the original speed is also presented.

    In addition to a description of the method of how the new emissions have been calculated in the new tables also include suggestions of future updating of the model. In addition, reported the conclusion of tests and comparisons to facilitate the transition from the current basic model VETO to PHEM. The calculations show that previous assumptions about the significantly lower emissions of vehicles have not been met, and that the vehicle speed impact on emissions has changed., We suggest that more vehicle types will be included in the model at the next update.

    The model simulates the CO2, SO2, fuel consumption, HC / VOC, CO, NOx, NO2 and exhaust particles, but the report only presents fuel consumption. However, all other parameters can be obtained directly from the authors. The report first provides a brief description of the different emission models, how the calculations are done up to now and then how adaptations and updates led to the resulting emission factors.

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    FULLTEXT01
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