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  • 1. Almroth, Andreas
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Canella, Olivier
    Flötteröd, Gunnar
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    West, Jens
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Further development of SAMPERS and modeling of urban congestion2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to more precisely represent the consequences of congestion mitigation policies in urban transport systems calls for replacement of the static equilibrium assignment by DTA in the integrated travel demand and traffic assignment models. Despite of the availability of DTA models and despite of the conceptual clarity of how such integration should take place, only few operational model systems have been developed for large-scale applications. We report on replacement of the static traffic assignment by two different DTAs in the four stage demand model for the Greater Stockholm region: the macroscopic analytic Visum DUE and microscopic simulation Transmodeler. First results show that even without systematic calibration the DTA is in reasonable agreement with observed traffic counts and travel times. The presented experiments did not reveal striking difference between using macroscopic and microscopic assignment package. However, given the clear trend to microscopic modeling and simulation on the travel demand side, the use of micro-simulation-based DTA package appears more natural from system integration perspective.

  • 2.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    The Gothenburg congestion charges: CBA and equity2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post cost- benefit and equity analysis of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. We base the analysis on observed effects transport model that is able to predict the effect of the charges on travel times and traffic volumes with high accuracy. We find that the net social benefit of the charge is positive. However, we also show that the system is regressive. Low income citizens pay a larger share of their income for three reasons. First, all income classes are highly car dependent in Gothenburg, due to the relatively low public transport share. Second, workers in the highest income class have considerably higher access to company cars, and are therefore either exempt from paying the charge, or can deduce the charge from their income tax. Third, high income individuals have higher values of time. Moreover, the revenue is spent mainly on a rail tunnel, which primarily benefits commuters residing far out in the region.

  • 3.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH.
    Forecasting effects of congestion charges2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post evaluation of the transport model forecast of the effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. We find that the predicted traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was under-predicted in off-peak. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, including a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data, but had to be adjusted to be consistent with observed outcome. One reason for the discrepancy may be that VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal travellers’ long-term preferences. Another reason may be that apart from distance, travel time and charge there are other factors that determine drivers’ route choice.

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