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  • 1.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Swedish Transport Administration. Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Geoteknologi.
    Optimisation of track geometry inspection interval2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 5, p. 546-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement and improvement of track quality are key issues in determining the time at which railway maintenance must be performed and its cost. Efficient track maintenance ensures optimum allocation of limited maintenance resources which has an enormous effect on maintenance efficiency. Applying an appropriate tamping strategy helps reduce maintenance costs, making operations more cost-effective and leading to increased safety and passenger comfort levels. This paper discusses optimisation of the track geometry inspection interval with a view to minimising the total ballast maintenance costs per unit traffic load. The proposed model considers inspection time, the maintenance-planning horizon time after inspection and takes into account the costs associated with inspection, tamping and risk of accidents due to poor track quality. It draws on track geometry data from the iron ore line (Malmbanan) in northern Sweden, used by both passenger and freight trains, to find the probability distribution of geometry faults.

  • 2.
    Arasteh khouy, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Cost-effective track geometry maintenance limits2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 611-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, railway maintenance actions were usually planned based on the knowledge and experience of the infrastructure owner. The main goal was to provide a high level of safety, and there was little concern about economic and operational optimisation issues. Today, however, a deregulated competitive environment and budget limitations are forcing railway infrastructures to move from safety limits to cost-effective maintenance limits to optimise operation and maintenance procedures. By so doing, one widens the discussion to include both operational safety and cost-effectiveness for the whole railway transport system. In this study, a cost model is proposed to specify the cost-effective maintenance limits for track geometry maintenance. The proposed model considers the degradation rates of different track sections and takes into account the costs associated with inspection, tamping, delay time penalties, and risk of accidents due to poor track quality. It draws on track geometry data from the Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) in northern Sweden, used by both passenger and freight trains, to estimate the geometrical degradation rate of each section. The methodology is based on reliability and cost analysis and facilitates the maintenance decision-making process to identify cost-effective maintenance thresholds.

  • 3.
    Arasteh khouy, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Geometrical degradation of railway turnouts: a case study from a Swedish heavy haul railroad2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 611-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turnouts are critical components of track systems in terms of safety, operation and maintenance. Each year, a considerable part of the maintenance budget is spent on their inspection, maintenance and renewal. Applying a cost-effective maintenance strategy helps to achieve the best performance at the lowest possible cost. In Sweden, the geometry of turnouts is inspected at predefined time intervals using the STRIX / IMV 100 track measurement car. This study uses time series for the measured longitudinal level of turnouts on the Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) in northern Sweden. Two different approaches are applied to analyse the geometrical degradation of turnouts due to dynamic forces generated by train traffic. In the first approach, the recorded measurements are adjusted at the crossing point and then the relative geometrical degradation of turnouts is evaluated by using two defined parameters, the absolute residual area and the maximum settlement, In the second approach, various geometry parameters are defined to estimate the degradation in each measurement separately. The growth rate of the longitudinal level degradation as a function of million gross tonnes / time is evaluated. The proposed methods are based on characterisation of the individual track measurements. The results facilitate correct decision-making in the maintenance process through understanding the degradation rate and defining the optimal maintenance thresholds for the planning process. In the long run, this can lead to a cost-effective maintenance strategy with optimised inspection and maintenance intervals.

  • 4.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Geoteknologi.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Nissen, Arne
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Swedish Transport Administration. Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Evaluation of track geometry maintenance for heavy haul railroad in Sweden: a case study2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 5, p. 496-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement and improvement of track quality are key issues in determining both the restoration time and cost of railway maintenance. Applying the optimal tamping strategy helps reduce maintenance costs, making operations more cost effective and leading to increased safety and passenger comfort. In this paper, track geometry data from the iron ore line (Malmbanan) in northern Sweden, which handles both passenger and freight trains, are used to evaluate track geometry maintenance in cold climate. The paper describes Trafikverket’s (Swedish Transport Administration) tamping strategy and evaluates its effectiveness in measuring, reporting, and improving track quality. Finally, it evaluates the performance of the maintenance contractor and discusses the importance of the functional requirements stated in the outsourcing contracts.

  • 5.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Gustafsson, Per
    SWECO Energuide AB.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    LKAB.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Reliability and measurement accuracy of a condition monitoring system in an extreme climate: a case study of automatic laser scanning of wheel profiles2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 695-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) is a 473 km long track section located in northern Sweden and has been in operation since 1903. This track section stretches through two countries, namely Sweden and Norway, and the main part of the track runs on the Swedish side, where the owner is the Swedish Government and the infrastructure manager is Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration). The ore trains are owned and managed by the freight operator and mining company LKAB. Due to the high axle load exerted by transportation of the iron ore, 30 tonnes, and the high demand for a constant flow of ore and pellets, the track and wagons must be monitored and maintained on a regular basis. The condition of the wagon wheel is one of the most important aspects in this connection, and here the wheel profile plays an important role. For this reason an automatic laser-based wheel profile monitoring system (WPMS) has been installed on this line using a system lifecycle approach that is based on the reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) approach for railways. The system was prepared and installed and is being operated in a collaborative project between the freight operator and infrastructure manager. The measurements are used to diagnose the condition of the wheels, and to further optimize their maintenance. This paper presents a study of the concepts and ideas of the WPMS, and the selection, installation and validation of the equipment using a system lifecycle approach that is based on RAMS for railways. Results from the profile measurements and validation are shown. The system’s reliability during performance in extreme climate conditions, with severe cold and large quantities of snow, is presented. Then the benefits, perceived challenges and acquired knowledge of the system are discussed, and an improved V-model for the lifecycle approach is presented.

  • 6.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    A study of railway wheel profile parameters used as indicators of an increased risk of wheel defects2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity demands on the railways will increase in the future, as well as the demands for a robust and available system. The availability of the railway system is dependent on the condition of the infrastructure and the rolling stock. To inspect the rolling stock and to prevent damage to the track due to faulty wheels, infrastructure managers normally install wayside monitoring systems along the track. Such systems indicate, for example, wheels that fall outside the defined safety limits and have to be removed from service to prevent further damage to the track. Due to the nature of many wayside monitoring systems, which only monitor vehicles at definite points along the track, damage may be induced on the track prior to fault detection at the location of the system. Such damage can entail capacity-consuming speed reductions and manual track inspections before the track can be opened for traffic again. The number of wheel defects must therefore be kept to a minimum. In this paper wheel profile parameters measured by a wayside wheel profile measurement system, installed along the Swedish Iron Ore Line, are examined and related to warning and alarm indications from a wheel defect detector installed on the same line. The study shows that an increased wheel wear, detectable by changes in the wheel profile parameters could be used to reduce the risk of capacity-consuming wheel defect failure events and its reactive measures.

  • 7.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå Railway Research Centre.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Augmented utilisation of possession time: Analysis for track geometry maintenance2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 4, p. 1118-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for increased capacity on existing railway networks is a challenge for many Europe-based infrastructure managers; addressing this challenge requires augmented utilisation of track possession time. It is considered that large-scale maintenance tasks such as geometry maintenance can be improved; thus, reducing the on-track maintenance time and allowing more traffic. In this study, an analysis of track geometry maintenance was performed with the objective of reducing the required possession time. The procedure and models for planning and optimizing track geometry maintenance are presented. A statistical model that uses a simulation approach was used to determine the condition of the track geometry, and a schedule optimization problem was formulated to support intervention decisions and optimize the track possession time. The results of the case study show that optimizing the maintenance shift length and cycle length are opportunities to reduce the extent of track possession required for the maintenance of the track geometry. In addition, continuous improvement of the tamping process through lean analysis promises about a 45% reduction in the required possession time for a tamping cycle.

  • 8.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Xin, Tao
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Optimisation of maintenance track possession time: A tamping case study2015In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 229, no 1, p. 42726-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimum allocation and efficient utilisation of track possession time are becoming important topics in railway infrastructure management due to increasing capacity demands. This development and other requirements of modern infrastructure management necessitate the improvement of planning and scheduling of large-scale maintenance activities such as tamping. It is therefore necessary to develop short-, medium- and long-term plans for performing tamping on a network or track section within a definite time horizon. To this end, two key aspects of infrastructure maintenance planning are considered in this paper, deterioration modelling and scheduling optimisation. An exponential deterioration function is applied to model the geometry quality of a series of 200 m segments of a 130 km line section, and an empirical model for recovery after tamping intervention is developed. These two models are subsequently used to generate a methodology to optimise a schedule for tamping intervention by minimising the total cost of intervention including the cost of track possession while geometry quality is ascertained to be within a desirable limit. The modelling considers two types of tamping interventions, preventive and corrective, with different intervention limits and tamping machines. The result of this paper suggests a tamping plan which will lead to optimum allocation of track possession time while maintaining the track geometry quality within specified limits.

  • 9.
    Jönsson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Measurement of vertical geometry variations in railway turnouts exposed to different operating conditions2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 486-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turnouts are critical units in a railway system; they perform the switching procedure that allows trains to change between routes. Monitoring the track geometry of a turnout is necessary for maintenance planning and design optimisation. Monitoring is usually done by track recording cars, however, to isolate the ageing and dynamic behaviour of the track it is also necessary to study the unstressed track geometry of the turnouts. Such measurements can be used to develop degradation models to optimise maintenance and design, thereby increasing availability and reducing life cycle cost. This paper introduces a new method to measure the vertical position of the track geometry over time during non-operational conditions (unstressed) to show track degradation. The new method includes a smart system that uses relative measurement reference points to create a better accuracy and lower costs compared with fixed reference points. It evaluates various types of measurement equipment and uses levelling equipment to measure the unstressed vertical geometry of 13 turnouts located on Swedish railway lines, with three follow-up measurements over a year and a half. The turnouts were categorised into four groups: based on their accumulated capacity in million gross tonnes (MGT) and whether they were on a straight or curved main track. Surprisingly, the first three measurements showed the geometry of turnouts on the straight main track to have a vertical elevation tendency towards the mid-section, whereas the turnouts on the curved main track had a general vertical downwards bend tendency towards the mid-section. The results also showed that a higher capacity in MGT has a greater influence on track geometry changes over time.

  • 10.
    Lin, Jing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Asplund, Matthias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Bayesian Semi-parametric Analysis for Locomotive Wheel Degradation using Gamma Frailties2015In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 229, no 3, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reliability study based on a Bayesian semi-parametric framework is performed in order to explore the impact of the position of a locomotive wheel on its service lifetime and to predict its other reliability characteristics. A piecewise constant hazard regression model is used to analyse the lifetime of locomotive wheels using degradation data and taking into account the bogie on which the wheel is located. Gamma frailties are included in this study to explore unobserved covariates within the same group. The goal is to flexibly determine reliability for the wheel. A case study is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and the following conclusions are drawn. First, a polynomial degradation path is a better choice for the studied locomotive wheels; second, under given operational conditions, the position of the locomotive wheel, i.e. on which bogie it is mounted, can influence its reliability; third, a piecewise constant hazard regression model can be used to undertake reliability studies; fourth, considering gamma frailties is useful for exploring the influence of unobserved covariates; and fifth, the wheels have a higher failure risk after running a threshold distance, a finding which could be applied in optimisation of maintenance activities

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  • 11.
    Morant, Amparo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Data-driven model for maintenance decision support: A case study of railway signalling systems2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 1, p. 220-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Signalling systems ensure the safe operation of the railway network. Their reliability and maintainability directly affect the capacity and availability of the railway network, in terms of both infrastructure and trains, as a line cannot be fully operative until a failure has been repaired. The purpose of this paper is to propose a data-driven decision support model which integrates the various parameters of corrective maintenance data and to study maintenance performance by considering different RAMS parameters. This model is based on failure analysis of historical events in the form of corrective maintenance actions. It has been validated in a case study of railway signalling systems and the results are summarised. The model allows the creation of maintenance policies based on failure characteristics, as it integrates the information recorded in the various parameters of the corrective maintenance work orders. The model shows how the different failures affect the dependability of the system: the critical failures indicate the reliability of the system, the corrective actions give information about the maintainability of the components, and the relationship between the corrective maintenance times measures the efficiency of the corrective maintenance actions. All this information can be used to plan new strategies of preventive maintenance and failure diagnostics, reduce the corrective maintenance, and improve the maintenance performance.

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Asplund, Matthias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Larsson, Dan
    Damill AB, Luleå.
    Condition monitoring at the wheel/rail interface for decision-making support2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 705-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many railway assets, such as wheels, suffer from increasing deterioration during operation. Good condition monitoring based on good decision-making techniques can lead to accurate assessment of the current health of the wheels. This, in turn, will improve safety, facilitate maintenance planning and scheduling, and reduce maintenance costs and down-time. In this paper, wheel/rail forces are selected as a parameter (feature) for the condition monitoring of wheel health. Once wheels are properly thresholded, determining their condition can help operators to define maintenance limits for their rolling stock. In addition, if rail forces are used as condition indicators of wheel wear, it is possible to use measurement stations that cost less than ordinary profile stations. These stations are located on ordinary tracks and can provide the condition of wheelsets without causing shutdowns or slowdowns of the railway system and without interfering with railway traffic. The paper uses the iron-ore transport line in northern Sweden as a test scenario to validate the use of wheel/rail forces as indicators of wagon and wheel health. The iron-ore transport line has several monitoring systems, but in this paper only two of these systems will be used. Wheel/rail force measurements are performed on curves to see how the vehicle negotiates the curve, and wheel profile measurements are done on tangent track not far away. The vehicles investigated are iron-ore wagons with an axle load of 30 tonnes and a loaded top speed of 60 km/h. The measurements are non-intrusive, since trains are moving and assets are not damaged during the testing process

  • 13. Patra, Ambika Prasad
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Availability analysis of railway track circuits2010In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 224, no 3, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railways are expected to operate with ever increasing availability. The availability of railway systems and subsystems influences the overall operational availability. As the track circuit is a key component of railway signalling and control, it can contribute significantly to the loss of availability of the railway system. One way to increase the availability of the track circuit is by implementing a proper maintenance policy.

    In this article, Petri-nets have been used to develop models for availability analysis of the track circuit for both time-based and condition-based maintenance. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to estimate the effect of maintenance parameters on availability performance using cost-benefit analysis.

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  • 14.
    Stenström, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Link and effect model for performance improvement of railway infrastructure2013In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 227, no 4, p. 392-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway traffic has increased over the last decade due to its fuel efficiency and the need to reduce emissions. The railway infrastructure performance needs to be measured to allow assets to be managed effectively against set objectives. Various systems are used to collect and store data on traffic, failures, inspections, track quality, etc. However, these systems are often used in an ad hoc manner, partly because of the weaknesses of traditional performance measurement systems. This paper proposes a link and effect model which is focused on the areas of continuous improvement, the key elements of strategic planning and on the underlying factors responsible for the railway performance. The model provides information on the performance of railway systems and components, and how they are linked to each other and to the overall objectives, thereby facilitating proactive decision-making. The model is applied in a case study on the Iron Ore Line, Sweden. The performance of a section of the line is studied in terms of failures, train delays and repair times, and ranked through a risk matrix and composite indicator.

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    FULLTEXT01
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